Where S= Sales
F= Fixed Cost
V= Variable cost
Profit /Volume Ratio – Profit Volume Ratio may be expressed as:-
P/V Ratio = (Sales – Marginal Cost of Sales )/ Sales
Or = Contribution/ Sales.
Or = Change in contribution/ Change in Sale
Or = Change in Profit/ Change in Sale
Suppose the sale price and marginal cost of a product are Rs20 and Rs 12 respectively, The P/V Ratio will be (Rs 20-Rs12) X100 = 40%
P/V Ratio remains constant at different levels of operation. A Change in fixed cost does not result in change in P/V ratio since P/V expresses relationship between contribution and sales.
Advantages of P/V Ratio –
i) It helps in determining the break even point.
ii) It helps in determining profit at various sales levels.
iii) It helps to fins out the sales volumes to earn a desired quamtum of profit.
iv) It helps to dertermine relative profitability of different products, processes and deoartments.
Limitations of P/V Ratio-
i) P/V Ratio heavily leans on excess of revenue over variable cost.
ii) The P/V Ratio fails to take in to consideration the capital outlays required by the additional productive capacity and the additional fixed cost, tha t are added.
iii) Inspection of P/V ratio of products can suggest profitable product lines that might be emphasized and unprofitable lines that may be re-evaluated or eliminated. Mere inspection of P/V ratio will not help to take final decision. For this purpose, analysis has to be broadened to take in to consideration differential cost of the decision and opportunity cost etc, . Thus it indicates only the area to be probed.
iv) The P/V ratio has been referred to as the questionable device for decision-making because it only gives an indication of the profitability of the product/product lines: that too if other things are equal, P/V ratio is good for forming impression and not for making decision.